The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.
Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms and the part of microbiological science which encompasses the study of bacteria is known as “Bacteriology”. Major researches in bacteriology over the past years resulted in the development of many useful vaccines. Bacterial ecology is defined as the interaction between bacteria and with their environment. Bacteria play a vital role in the biosphere and certain key processes, such as, the production and oxidation of methane, soil formation, conversion of rock to soil etc. Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms and the part of microbiological science which encompasses the study of bacteria is known as “Bacteriology”. Major researches in bacteriology over the past years resulted in the development of many useful vaccines. The ancestors of present bacteria were said to be first forms of life on earth. Bacterial cells are about 0.5-5.0 micrometers in length. Bacteria exists in different shapes like single celled, diploid (Neisseria), chains (Streptococcus), filaments (Actinobacteria). Bacteria lack membrane bound organelles, contains single loop DNA, it generally undergoes conjugation. There are techniques like staining to differentiate Gram positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Compared to virus, cost for antibiotics is low still 700 million infections were found every year with the mortality rate of 0.1% normally and in severe conditions it is about 25%.
Epidemiology is the need for high specificity typing of disease agents: to confirm trace back of disease to origin, to monitor the spread of disease causing strains, to study population dynamics of the disease strain, to discern endemic/enzootic from epidemic/epizootic infections, to detect the presence of multiple strain (s) in the population and/or individual, to identify modes of transmission of the disease agent from host to host, and to address other epidemiological questions or issues. Molecular subtyping has been generally found to be better than most traditional phenotypic subtyping methods because it is usually more discriminating and less influenced by the organism’s responses to environmental cues. Many molecular techniques have been adapted for application to epidemiological issues, and different techniques are needed for different aspects of investigation.
Infections is the war between the pathogen and its host. It is important to understand the nature of both sides to prevent and treat the infections, the microbiology testing market accounted for 5% in the global IVD (In-Vitro Diagnostics) market and contributed $3556.7 million in 2013 to the IVD market, and is estimated to reach $4737.2 million by 2013 at a CAGR of 6.2% from 2013 to 2018. Lastly, Singapore’s IVD market is an estimated $89 million. Singapore has the highest rated healthcare system in Southeast Asia and a highly competitive IVD market. Many leading companies in the IVD industry are active in Singapore.
Plant Biotechnology is a branch of bacteriology that deals with organisms associated with pathogenic for plants. This bacteria causes a small proportion of plant diseases, this does not mean that these diseases are unimportant. Other biotic agents implicated in plant diseases are fungi, viruses and nematodes, abiotic factors may also produce diseases like symptoms. Pathogenic tests can be done for the prevention of disease. There are 1,700 fortune organizations globally with more than 1200 premium studies in a year with a good market research firm worldwide annually.
Accurate and definitive bacterial identification is essential for correct disease diagnosis, treatment of infection and trace-back of disease outbreaks associated with microbial infections. Bacterial identification is used in a wide variety of applications including microbial forensics, criminal investigations, bio-terrorism threats and environmental studies. Traditional methods of bacterial identification rely on phenotypic identification of the causative organism using gram staining, culture and biochemical methods. For identification of bacteria tests can be done like citrate utilization test, methyl red test, indole production test. In the past decade or so, molecular techniques have proven beneficial in overcoming some limitations of traditional phenotypic procedures for the detection and characterization of bacterial phenotypes. Several non-culture-based methods have emerged in the past 15 years. Real time PCR and microarrays are currently the most commonly employed molecular techniques.
Clinical bacteriology supports the diagnosis of disease using laboratory testing of blood, tissues, and other body fluids. These are the types of specimens used in clinical pathology. They are blood, urine, sputum, and other body fluids, in which it deals with health care, especially the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the female reproductive system. The market is divided based on geography, such as, North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of the World. Asia-Pacific and some countries in Rest of the World owing to rapidly growing prevalence and awareness about the diseases caused due to gram-positive bacteria and its chronic effects. Bacterial clinical studies include clinical microbiology and bacterial genome sequencing. The value of microbial and microbial physiology market is projected to increase to $4,456.37 million by 2019 at a CAGR of 15.3% from 2014.
acteria are microscopic, single-cell organisms that live almost everywhere. Bacteria live in every climate and location on earth. Some are airborne while others live in water or soil. Bacteria live on and inside plants, animals, and people. Bacterial ecology is defined as the interaction between bacteria and with their environment. Bacteria play a vital role in the biosphere and certain key processes, such as, the production and oxidation of methane, soil formation, conversion of rock to soil etc. Major researches in bacteriology over the past years resulted in the development of many useful vaccines. Bacterial cells are about 2 µm (micrometers) long and 0.5 µm in diameter. Bacteria exist in different shapes like rod-shaped (bacilli), spherical (cocci), or helical (spirillum). Bacteria are lack membrane bound organelles, contains single loop DNA, it generally undergoes conjugation. There are techniques like staining to differentiate Gram positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Compared to virus, cost for antibiotics is low still 700 million infections were found every year.
During the past 10 years, genomics and bacterial genomics based approaches have had a profound impact on the field of microbiology and our understanding of microbial species. Because of their larger genome sizes, genome sequencing efforts on fungi and unicellular eukaryotes were slower to get started than projects focused on prokaryotes; however, today there are a number of genome sequences available from both of these groups of organisms that have led to significant improvements in overall sequence annotation and also shed considerable light on novel aspects of their biology. Molecular systems biology is an integrative discipline that seeks to explain the properties and behavior of complex biological systems in terms of their molecular components and their interactions. Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems. According to the World Health Organization more than 1 million people acquire a sexually transmitted infection (STI) every day and an estimated 500 million people become ill with Chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis or trichomoniasis every year. Approximately 40% of the bacterial species that have been targeted for genome analysis represent important human pathogens. Approximately 40% of the bacterial species based on bacterial pathogenesis that have been targeted for genome analysis represent important human pathogens. Using a whole genome shotgun approach, Tyson et al. (2004) were able to reconstruct two almost complete genome sequences of Leptospiral group II and Ferro plasma type II and the partial sequence of three other species from a low complexity acid mine drainage biofilm growing underground within a pyrite or body.
Vaccines are the products that can produce immunity from a disease and can be administered through needle injections, by mouth and by aerosol. Vaccination is the injection of a killed or weakened organism that produces immunity in the body against that organism The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends getting 28 doses of 10 vaccines for kids aged 0 to six. No US federal laws mandate vaccination, but all 50 states require certain vaccinations for children entering public schools. Most states offer medical and religious exemptions; and some states allow philosophical exemptions.
Infections that are prepared to do specifically or in a roundabout way actuating tumor arrangement. Coordinate tumor development may come about because of vaccination of living cells with tumorigenic infections. Tumor development may come because of the impact of the infection on typical cells that are changed into cells. Viruses play a role in the development of cancer due to the genetic changes. The viruses and cancer are known as tumour viruses or oncogenic viruses. The frequency of human cancer can be reduced vaccinating against the viruses or therapeutically by testing the infections.
Deadly viruses caused due to the viruses which are tiny germs that invade into the living organisms and normal cells and by using those cells multiply and produce viruses like themselves. They can cause damage; make changes in the cell can make us sick or can kill us. Viruses can attack different cells in or body like liver, Respiratory system, or blood. Few examples of some deadly viral diseases are Ebola, H5N1bird Flue, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, and Spanish Flue, Rabies, HIV, West Nile Virus etc. There are antiviral medicines to treat viral infection. Vaccines can prevent us from viral infection.
Neuro Virology mainly focuses on the viruses which infects the nervous system and to trace neuroanatomical pathway by using viruses for gene therapy and to eliminate the harmful populations of neural cells. Viruses infects the Nervous system because Neurons lack molecules which are necessary to present viral cells on the surface to killer cell and provides a safe house for the viruses to replicate. Viruses can persist for host’s lifetime if once it gets into the hosts neuron.Clinical virology characterises or isolates the viruses which are responsible for human pathologies by direct or indirect ways. Example of some tests to identify the viruses responsible for infection in humans are Influenza A RNA detection, HCV genotyping, BK virus DNA quantitation, HIV integrase inhibitor resistance testing.
On a molecular level the study of viruses are known as Molecular Virology. Viruses have large biological diversity as it successfully infect and parasitize plants animals and microorganisms. They can effectively contaminate and parasitize a wide range of life structures from microorganisms to plants and animals and therefore viruses have more biological diversities than bacterial, plant, and creature kingdoms combined. Studying these differences is the key to a better understanding of how infections interact with their hosts, duplicate inside them, and cause diseases.
Immunology is the branch of biomedical sciences that covers all aspects of the immune system in all multicellular organisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, and also parasitic organisms, such as helminth worms. cell signalling is part of a complex system of communication that administers basic cellular activities and coordinates cell activities. A Neutralizing antibody is an antibody which safeguards a cell from an antigen or infectious body by inhibiting or neutralizing any effect it has biologically. Cell mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.
An oncolytic virology is the study of virus that infects and kills cancer cells.They release new infectious virus particles or virions to help destroy the remaining tumour as the infected cancer cells are destroyed by oncolysis.
Agriculture and Plant virology deals with the cyclic development of viral disease within plant. Transgenic plants are genetically modified using recombinant DNA technique to create plants with new characteristics. Brome Mosaic Virus- a small icosahedral positive stranded RNA plant virus which is found where wheat and barley is grown. Tobacco-mosaic virus- is a single stranded RNA virus that causes mottling and discolouration of tobacco leaves. Cucumber mosaic virus-are the plant pathogenic virus that occurs in cucumber and tomato plants. Alfalfa mosaic virus- is a phytopathogen that leads to yellow mosaics and necrosis on commercially important crops such as peas, lentils, clovers. Rice Stripe Virus- is a RNA plant pathogen that infects plants such as wheat, corn and rice.
Veterinary virology is the branch of veterinary medicine. It is the study of the viruses in non-human animals. Research in virology and veterinary virology studies the pathogenicity, diagnostic ,identification ,epidemiology and immune responses to a range of viral pathogens for example-Japanese encephalitis virus, HIV, respiratory syncytial virus, cytomegalovirus and other herpes viruses , chicken metapneumovirus, feline calicivirus and Schmallenberg virus. Techniques used include: diagnostic identification methods, flow cytometry, epidemiology, PCR and transcriptomic and genomic technologies, including metagenomics, resequencing and genotyping cell separation, proteomics and infection models.
A parasitic disease, also known as parasitosis, is an infectious disease caused or transmitted by a parasite. Many parasites do not cause diseases. Parasitic diseases can affect practically all living organisms, including plants and mammals. The study of parasitic diseases is called parasitology.Some parasites like Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium spp. can cause disease directly, but other organisms can cause disease by the toxins that they produce.
Bacterial and viral infections have many things in common. Both types of infections are caused by microbes -- bacteria and viruses, respectively -- and spread by things such as Coughing and sneezing, Contact with infected people, Contact with contaminated surfaces, food, and water,Contact with infected creatures, including pets, livestock, and insects such as fleas and ticks.
Fungi are everywhere. There are approximately 1.5 million different species of fungi on Earth, but only about 300 of those are known to make people sick. Fungal diseases are often caused by fungi that are common in the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil and on plants and trees as well as on many indoor surfaces and on human skin. Most fungi are not dangerous, but some types can be harmful to health.